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//! # Day 14: Docking Data
//!
//! As your ferry approaches the sea port, the captain asks for your help again. The computer system
//! that runs this port isn't compatible with the docking program on the ferry, so the docking
//! parameters aren't being correctly initialized in the docking program's memory.
//!
//! After a brief inspection, you discover that the sea port's computer system uses a strange
//! [bitmask] system in its initialization program. Although you don't have the correct decoder chip
//! handy, you can emulate it in software!
//!
//! The initialization program (your puzzle input) can either update the bitmask or write a value to
//! memory. Values and memory addresses are both 36-bit unsigned integers. For example, ignoring
//! bitmasks for a moment, a line like `mem[8] = 11` would write the value `11` to memory address
//! `8`.
//!
//! The bitmask is always given as a string of 36 bits, written with the most significant bit
//! (representing `2^35`) on the left and the least significant bit (`2^0`, that is, the `1`s bit)
//! on the right. The current bitmask is applied to values immediately before they are written to
//! memory: a `0` or `1` overwrites the corresponding bit in the value, while an `X` leaves the bit
//! in the value unchanged.
//!
//! For example, consider the following program:
//!
//! ```txt
//! mask = XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX1XXXX0X
//! mem[8] = 11
//! mem[7] = 101
//! mem[8] = 0
//! ```
//!
//! This program starts by specifying a bitmask (`mask = ....`). The mask it specifies will
//! overwrite two bits in every written value: the `2`s bit is overwritten with `0`, and the `64`s
//! bit is overwritten with `1`.
//!
//! The program then attempts to write the value `11` to memory address `8`. By expanding everything
//! out to individual bits, the mask is applied as follows:
//!
//! ```txt
//! value:  000000000000000000000000000000001011  (decimal 11)
//! mask:   XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX1XXXX0X
//! result: 000000000000000000000000000001001001  (decimal 73)
//! ```
//!
//! So, because of the mask, the value `73` is written to memory address `8` instead. Then, the
//! program tries to write `101` to address `7`:
//!
//! ```txt
//! value:  000000000000000000000000000001100101  (decimal 101)
//! mask:   XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX1XXXX0X
//! result: 000000000000000000000000000001100101  (decimal 101)
//! ```
//!
//! This time, the mask has no effect, as the bits it overwrote were already the values the mask
//! tried to set. Finally, the program tries to write `0` to address `8`:
//!
//! ```txt
//! value:  000000000000000000000000000000000000  (decimal 0)
//! mask:   XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX1XXXX0X
//! result: 000000000000000000000000000001000000  (decimal 64)
//! ```
//!
//! `64` is written to address `8` instead, overwriting the value that was there previously.
//!
//! To initialize your ferry's docking program, you need the sum of all values left in memory after
//! the initialization program completes. (The entire 36-bit address space begins initialized to the
//! value `0` at every address.) In the above example, only two values in memory are not zero -
//! `101` (at address `7`) and `64` (at address `8`) - producing a sum of **`165`**.
//!
//! Execute the initialization program. **What is the sum of all values left in memory after it
//! completes?**
//!
//! [bitmask]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mask_(computing)
//!
//! ## Part Two
//!
//! For some reason, the sea port's computer system still can't communicate with your ferry's
//! docking program. It must be using **version 2** of the decoder chip!
//!
//! A version 2 decoder chip doesn't modify the values being written at all. Instead, it acts as a
//! [memory address decoder]. Immediately before a value is written to memory, each bit in the
//! bitmask modifies the corresponding bit of the destination **memory address** in the following
//! way:
//!
//! - If the bitmask bit is `0`, the corresponding memory address bit is **unchanged**.
//! - If the bitmask bit is `1`, the corresponding memory address bit is **overwritten with `1`**.
//! - If the bitmask bit is `X`, the corresponding memory address bit is **floating**.
//!
//! A **floating** bit is not connected to anything and instead fluctuates unpredictably. In
//! practice, this means the floating bits will take on **all possible values**, potentially causing
//! many memory addresses to be written all at once!
//!
//! For example, consider the following program:
//!
//! ```txt
//! mask = 000000000000000000000000000000X1001X
//! mem[42] = 100
//! mask = 00000000000000000000000000000000X0XX
//! mem[26] = 1
//! ```
//!
//! When this program goes to write to memory address `42`, it first applies the bitmask:
//!
//! ```txt
//! address: 000000000000000000000000000000101010  (decimal 42)
//! mask:    000000000000000000000000000000X1001X
//! result:  000000000000000000000000000000X1101X
//! ```
//!
//! After applying the mask, four bits are overwritten, three of which are different, and two of
//! which are **floating**. Floating bits take on every possible combination of values; with two
//! floating bits, four actual memory addresses are written:
//!
//! ```txt
//! 000000000000000000000000000000011010  (decimal 26)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000011011  (decimal 27)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000111010  (decimal 58)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000111011  (decimal 59)
//! ```
//!
//! Next, the program is about to write to memory address `26` with a different bitmask:
//!
//! ```txt
//! address: 000000000000000000000000000000011010  (decimal 26)
//! mask:    00000000000000000000000000000000X0XX
//! result:  00000000000000000000000000000001X0XX
//! ```
//!
//! This results in an address with three floating bits, causing writes to **eight** memory
//! addresses:
//!
//! ```txt
//! 000000000000000000000000000000010000  (decimal 16)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000010001  (decimal 17)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000010010  (decimal 18)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000010011  (decimal 19)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000011000  (decimal 24)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000011001  (decimal 25)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000011010  (decimal 26)
//! 000000000000000000000000000000011011  (decimal 27)
//! ```
//!
//! The entire 36-bit address space still begins initialized to the value 0 at every address, and
//! you still need the sum of all values left in memory at the end of the program. In this example,
//! the sum is **`208`**.
//!
//! Execute the initialization program using an emulator for a version 2 decoder chip. **What is the
//! sum of all values left in memory after it completes?**
//!
//! [memory address decoder]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PvfhANgLrm4

use anyhow::{anyhow, bail, Context, Result};
use fnv::FnvHashMap;

pub const INPUT: &str = include_str!("d14.txt");

pub fn solve_part_one(input: &str) -> Result<u64> {
    let input = parse_input(input)?;
    let mut memory = FnvHashMap::default();

    for InstructionSet { mask, assignments } in input {
        for (address, value) in assignments {
            memory.insert(
                address,
                mask.iter().copied().fold(value, |v, (pos, bit)| match bit {
                    Bit::Unset => v & !(1 << pos),
                    Bit::Set => v | (1 << pos),
                    _ => v,
                }),
            );
        }
    }

    Ok(memory.values().sum())
}

pub fn solve_part_two(input: &str) -> Result<u64> {
    let input = parse_input(input)?;
    let mut memory = FnvHashMap::default();

    for InstructionSet { mask, assignments } in input {
        for (address, value) in assignments {
            let address = mask
                .iter()
                .copied()
                .filter(|(_, bit)| *bit == Bit::Set)
                .fold(address, |v, (pos, _)| v | (1 << pos));

            let mut addresses = vec![address];

            for (pos, _) in mask.iter().copied().filter(|(_, bit)| *bit == Bit::Floating) {
                for i in 0..addresses.len() {
                    addresses.extend(&[addresses[i] | (1 << pos), addresses[i] & !(1 << pos)]);
                }
            }

            for address in addresses {
                memory.insert(address, value);
            }
        }
    }

    Ok(memory.values().sum())
}

fn parse_input(input: &str) -> Result<Vec<InstructionSet>> {
    let mut res = Vec::new();
    let mut mask = None;
    let mut assignments = Vec::new();

    for l in input.lines() {
        let mut parts = l.splitn(2, " = ");
        let instruction = parts.next().context("instruction missing")?;
        let value = parts.next().context("value missing")?;

        match instruction {
            "mask" => {
                if let Some(mask) = mask {
                    res.push(InstructionSet { mask, assignments });
                    assignments = Vec::new();
                }

                mask = Some(
                    value
                        .chars()
                        .rev()
                        .enumerate()
                        .map(|(i, c)| {
                            Ok(match c {
                                '0' => (i, Bit::Unset),
                                '1' => (i, Bit::Set),
                                'X' => (i, Bit::Floating),
                                c => bail!("invalid character '{}'", c),
                            })
                        })
                        .collect::<Result<_>>()?,
                );
            }
            i if i.starts_with("mem[") && i.ends_with(']') => {
                let address = i
                    .strip_prefix("mem[")
                    .and_then(|i| i.strip_suffix("]"))
                    .context("invalid memory instruction format")?
                    .parse()?;
                let value = value.parse()?;

                assignments.push((address, value));
            }
            i => bail!("unknown instruction '{}'", i),
        }
    }

    if let Some(mask) = mask {
        res.push(InstructionSet { mask, assignments });
    }

    Ok(res)
}

struct InstructionSet {
    mask: Vec<(usize, Bit)>,
    assignments: Vec<(usize, u64)>,
}

#[derive(Copy, Clone, Ord, PartialOrd, Eq, PartialEq)]
enum Bit {
    Unset,
    Set,
    Floating,
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
    use indoc::indoc;

    use super::*;

    #[test]
    fn part_one() {
        let input = indoc! {"
            mask = XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX1XXXX0X
            mem[8] = 11
            mem[7] = 101
            mem[8] = 0
        "};
        assert_eq!(165, solve_part_one(input).unwrap());
    }

    #[test]
    fn part_two() {
        let input = indoc! {"
            mask = 000000000000000000000000000000X1001X
            mem[42] = 100
            mask = 00000000000000000000000000000000X0XX
            mem[26] = 1
        "};
        assert_eq!(208, solve_part_two(input).unwrap());
    }
}